Index




Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type.


A


Abdominal fat grafting, in superficial parotidectomy, for parotid defect reconstruction, 236


Acellular dermal matrix (ADM), in superficial parotidectomy, for parotid defect reconstruction, 235, 237


Acoustic rhinometry (AR), in NAO measurement, 317, 319


controversies of, 319–320


Advancement flap. See Superficial muscular aponeurotic system advancement flap.


Age of patient, as facelift controversy, 358


as facial reanimation controversy, 276–278, 280, 282–283


septorhinoplasty timing and, 248, 330–331


Airflow, nasal, normal, through valve, 221–222


objective measures of, 318–319


principles of, 315–316


Airway. See Nasal airway.


Alar batten grafts, for NVD, 226, 229


Alar collapse, in NAO, 318


Alar rim grafts, for NVD, 226, 230–231


Allogenic grafts, for orbital fracture management, 300–301


Alloplastic materials, absorbable vs. nonabsorbable, for orbital fracture management, 300–301


antibiotics use with, 351–352


in revision rhinoplasty, 337–338


Allotransplantation, composite tissue, 367. See also Facial transplantation.


ALT flap. See Anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap.


American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) rating scales, in EBM, for diagnostic studies, 267–268


for prognostic/risk studies, 267–268


for therapeutic studies, 267


Anastomoses, microvascular, in CTA, 367, 369


nasal injection cautions related to, 384


Angiography, CT, for CTA, 369


Angiosomes, in CTA, 369


Animal models/studies, of septorhinoplasty, in pediatric patient, 246–247


Antebrachial cutaneous nerve, medial, in smile reanimation, 283–284


Anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap, in total parotidectomy, for parotid defect reconstruction, 239–240


with radical defects, 240, 242


Anthropometric studies, of septorhinoplasty, in pediatric patient, 247


Antibiotics, use in facial plastic surgery, 347–356


alloplastic implantation and, 351–352


blepharoplasty and, 350–351


introduction to, 347


key points of, 347


maxillofacial trauma and, 352–355


expert practice survey of, 352, 355


highest-quality studies of, 352–354


resurfacing and, 352


rhinoplasty and, 347–350


patients not receiving prophylaxis, 348


patients receiving prophylaxis, 349–350


patients receiving prophylaxis compared to placebos or no treatment, 348–349


revision, 342, 344


rhytidectomy and, 351


septoplasty and, 347–350


patients not receiving prophylaxis, 348


patients receiving prophylaxis, 349–350


patients receiving prophylaxis compared to placebos or no treatment, 348–349


Anticoagulation prophylaxis, bleeding risk with procedures, 310–311


stratified by risk score, 310–311


for VTE prevention, post-free flap surgery, 310–312


Anticoagulation protocols, for flap prophylaxis, in free flap surgery, 312


AR. See Acoustic rhinometry (AR).


Artecoll injection, in the nose, 384


Arterial insufficiency, in CTA, 369


Arterial spasm, in free flap surgery, 313


Aspirin regimen, for flap prophylaxis, in free flap surgery, 312


ASPS scales. See American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) rating scales.


Augmentation, dorsal grafts for, in revision rhinoplasty, 337–338, 340–341


volume, as facelift controversy, 363–364


Auricular cartilage grafts, in primary rhinoplasty, 332


Auricular nerve graft, in facial reanimation, 276


in radical parotidectomy, for parotid defect reconstruction, 240


Autogenous grafts, for orbital fracture management, 300–301


Autologous fat transfer, as facelift controversy, 363–364


HA injectables vs., 384, 387


nasal injection techniques for, 383–384


Autologous grafts, in revision rhinoplasty, 337–338


rib cartilage as, 339–340


Autonomy, as facial transplantation issue, 374–375


Autospreader flaps, in primary rhinoplasty, 330


in revision rhinoplasty, 341–342


Autospreader grafts, for NVD, 226–228




B


Babysitter procedures, in smile reanimation, 285–286


Bacterial colonization, of nasal cavity, 347


Batten grafts, alar, for NVD, 226, 229


Belotero injection, in the nose, 380–382


Beneficence, as facial transplantation issue, 374–375


Bernoulli effect, of airflow, 316


Bernoulli principle, of NVD, 221


Biomaterials, for orbital fracture management, 300–301


Bleeding risk, with anticoagulation prophylaxis, procedure-related, 310–311


stratified by risk score, 310–311


Blepharoplasty, antibiotics use with, 350–351


Bone grafts, for orbital fracture management, 300–301


Botulinum toxin type A, for nasal tip drooping, 381–382


Butterfly grafts, for NVD, 226, 230–232


in primary rhinoplasty, 330




B


Babysitter procedures, in smile reanimation, 285–286


Bacterial colonization, of nasal cavity, 347


Batten grafts, alar, for NVD, 226, 229


Belotero injection, in the nose, 380–382


Beneficence, as facial transplantation issue, 374–375


Bernoulli effect, of airflow, 316


Bernoulli principle, of NVD, 221


Biomaterials, for orbital fracture management, 300–301


Bleeding risk, with anticoagulation prophylaxis, procedure-related, 310–311


stratified by risk score, 310–311


Blepharoplasty, antibiotics use with, 350–351


Bone grafts, for orbital fracture management, 300–301


Botulinum toxin type A, for nasal tip drooping, 381–382


Butterfly grafts, for NVD, 226, 230–232


in primary rhinoplasty, 330




C


Cable nerve grafting, in radical parotidectomy, for parotid defect reconstruction, 240–241


Cadaver specimen, in revision rhinoplasty, 339


of nose, 329


Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) injection, complications of, 382–383


in revision rhinoplasty, 340–341


in the nose, 382–383


paradigm and physical attributes of, 380–381


Caprini risk score, for VTE, 310


Caregiver, for cleft lip and palate patient, NAM effect on, poor compliance as, 259–260


psychosocial benefits as, 256


Cartilage, nasal, growth in neonates, 245–246


lower lateral. See Lower lateral cartilage (LLC).


pediatric septorhinoplasty and, 252, 331


septal. See Nasal septal cartilage.


septodorsal, in neonatal nasal growth, 245


structure of, 315


upper lateral. See Upper lateral cartilage (ULC).


quadrangular, in nasal valve management, 220–221


Cartilage grafts, costal. See Rib cartilage grafts.


for orbital fracture management, 301


in primary rhinoplasty, 328–330


for younger patient, 331–332


in revision rhinoplasty, controversies of, 339–340


diced vs. solid, 340


injectable, 340


injectable, in revision rhinoplasty, 340


Cartilage warping, autogenous, in revision rhinoplasty, 339–340


Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor, extirpation of, facial reanimation techniques following, 280


CFNG. See Cross-facial nerve graft (CFNG).


Chemoprophylaxis, for VTE, 310


Chemoreception, as nasal function, 315–316


Cleft deformity, congenital. See Nasal cleft deformity.


Cleft lip and cleft palate, in pediatric patient, 255–264


introduction to, 255


key points of, 255


metaanalysis of, 261–262


nasoalveolar molding for, 255–256


benefits of, 256–259


caregiver benefits of, psychosocial, 256


caregiver compliance with, poor, 259–260


clinical benefits of, 256–257


lack of, 260–261


costs of, increased short-term, 260


overall reduction with, 259


effect on facial growth, 260


effect on nasal appearance, in bilateral deformity, 257–258


in unilateral deformity, 256


opposition to, 259–261


review articles of, 261–262


speech development and, 259


presurgical infant orthopedics for, 255–256, 259–260


septorhinoplasty for, 248


summary of, 262


Cleft palate. See Cleft lip and cleft palate.


Clinical assessment, in flap monitoring, post-free flap surgery, 313


Clinical efficacy outcomes, of EBM, in facial plastic surgery, 269


Clinical practice guidelines, from EBM, for facial plastic surgery, 266–268


Clinical studies, of EBM, for facial plastic surgery, 266–267, 269. See also Levels of evidence (LOE) rating scales.


of septorhinoplasty, in pediatric patient, 247


Clinician-reported outcomes, of EBM, in facial plastic surgery, 268–269


Closed treatment, of subcondylar fractures, 299, 302–304


Clot prevention, anticoagulation for, post-free flap surgery, 310–312


CN. See Cranial nerve (CN) transfers.


Coaptation, with dual innervation, of free muscle transfers, 292–293


Collapse, alar, in NAO, 318


of lateral nasal sidewall. See Lateral nasal sidewall collapse.


of middle vault, 324


of nasal valve, 220, 222–223


measures of, 224–225, 318


Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA), 367. See also Facial transplantation.


Computational fluid dynamics, in NAO measurement, 320


Computed tomography (CT), in NAO measurement, 319–320


in outcome measures, of nasal valve surgery, 225


of traumatic fractures, 299


intraoperative, 301–302


timing of, 299–300


Computed tomography (CT) angiography, for CTA, 369


Congenital nasal defects, in pediatric patient. See also Cleft entries.


repair of. See Nasoalveolar molding (NAM).


septorhinoplasty for, 248–250


Consent, informed, for pediatric septorhinoplasty, 251


Conservative management, of NAO, in pediatric patient, 250


Conservative septoplasty maneuver, in pediatric patient, 331–332


Contralateral facial nerve graft, in smile reanimation, 283–284


Corrective rhinoplasty, in younger patient, 330–332


Corticosteroid injections, in the nose, 384, 386


Cosmetic rhinoplasty, in younger patient, 330–331


Costal cartilage grafts. See Rib cartilage grafts.


Cost-effectiveness, of facial transplantation, 376


Costs, of NAM, for cleft lip and palate, increased short-term, 260


overall reduction, 259


Cottle maneuver, for NAO, 316, 318


controversies of, 319


for NVD, 224


modified, 224, 318


CPA (cerebellopontine angle) tumor, extirpation of, facial reanimation techniques following, 280


Cranial nerve (CN) transfers, in smile reanimation, V to VII, 283–286


XII-VII, 285


Crooked nose, spreader grafts for, 328


Cross-facial nerve graft (CFNG), in smile reanimation, gracilis muscle transfer with, 289–291


masseteric innervation vs., 291–292


with direct reinnervation, 283–284


with dual innervation, 285–286


Crural strut grafts, lateral, for NVD, 226, 229–230


Crural turn-in grafts, lateral, for NVD, 226, 229–230


CTA (composite tissue allotransplantation), 367. See also Facial transplantation.


Cultures, of post-revision rhinoplasty infections, 342, 344




D


Deep-plane rhytidectomy, as facelift controversy, 360–362


Dermabrasion, in nasal reconstruction, 387–388


Dermatitis, post-facial transplantation, acute rejection vs., 373–374


Dextran regimen, for flap prophylaxis, in free flap surgery, 312


Diagnostic studies, of EBM, ASPS rating scales for, 267–268


Diced cartilage grafts, in revision rhinoplasty, 340


Dignity, as facial transplantation issue, 374–375


Displacement, in orbital fracture management, 300


Donor site, of rib cartilage grafts, in primary rhinoplasty, 332


Donor vessels, for CTA, 369


Doppler, implantable, in flap monitoring, post-free flap surgery, 313


Doppler flowometry, laser, in flap monitoring, post-free flap surgery, 313


Dorsal augmentation grafts, in revision rhinoplasty, 337–338, 340–341


Dorsal graft fixation, in revision rhinoplasty, 339


Dorsum. See Nasal dorsum.


Dual innervation, of free muscle transfers, in smile reanimation, 292–293


Dynamic facial reanimation, controversies with, 277, 280–294


gracilis muscle transfer in, for smile reanimation, 294


key principles of, 276


static vs., 275–276


Dynamic obstruction/collapse, of nasal valve, 221–223


external, 223


internal, 222




E


e FACE (electronic facial paralysis assessment tool), 277


EBM. See Evidence-based medicine (EBM).


Edema, soft tissue, post-rhinoplasty, injectables for, 382


Endoscopic harvesting, of rib cartilage grafts, 339


Endoscopic repair, of subcondylar fractures, 304


Enophthalmos, in orbital fracture management, 300


Erythema, post-facial transplantation, acute rejection vs., 374


Ethical issues, of facial transplantation, 374–376


Evidence-based medicine (EBM), in facial plastic surgery, 265–274


challenges of, 272–273


clinical practice guidelines for, 266–268


facial reanimation outcomes of, 269–272


introduction to, 265–266


key points of, 265


levels of evidence for, 266–267


rating scales, 266–268


outcome measures for, 268–269


with facial reanimation, 269–272


recommendation grades for, 267–268


in facial reanimation, 277


Expanded polytetrafluorethylene, in revision rhinoplasty, 338


Expert practice survey, of antibiotic use in maxillofacial trauma, 352, 355


Extender graft, split fascia lata, in temporalis tendon transfer, for smile reanimation, 287–288


External valve, collapse of, dynamic, 223


in NAO, 318


in nasal valve management, 220–221, 225


External valve zone, of lateral nasal sidewall collapse, 220, 222


Eyelid reanimation, in smile reanimation, 283


Eye-tracking technology, for facial reanimation outcomes, in EBM, 271–272




F


Facelift, controversies of, 357–366


autologous fat transfer as, 363–364


flap length as, 357, 360


full scope of techniques as, 357, 359–363


historical perspective of, 357–358


implants as, 363


incisions as, 357, 359


introduction to, 357


key points of, 357


less invasive procedures as, 358, 361–362


MACS lift as, 358–359, 361–363


midface management as, 357, 363–364


neck management as, 357, 364


patient candidacy as, 357–359


plane of dissection as, 357, 359–361


rhytidectomy as, 363


deep-plane, 360–362


subperiosteal, 360


short-scar as, 358, 363


SMAS as, 358–363. See also Superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS).


S-shaped incision as, 358–359, 361


summary of, 357, 364–365


vector of pull as, 357, 360


volume augmentation as, 363–364


Facial growth, in pediatric patient, functional septorhinoplasty and, 250–252


with cleft lip and palate, NAM effect on, 260


Facial nerve, in palsy. See Facial palsy (FP).


injury to, in parotid defect reconstruction, 235–236


paralysis grading scales for, 269–271, 277, 280–282


repair of. See also Facial reanimation.


primary, 276


transfer of. See Nerve transfers; specific nerve.


Facial Nerve Grading System 1.0, for facial palsy, 277, 280


Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0, for facial palsy, 277, 282


Facial nerve grafts. See also Nerve grafts/grafting.


in smile reanimation, contralateral, 283–284


cross-. See Cross-facial nerve graft (CFNG).


to masseter muscle, in radical parotidectomy, for parotid defect reconstruction, 241


Facial palsy (FP), classification of, 276


facial reanimation for, 275


grading scales for, 277, 280


incomplete, gracilis muscle transfer with dynamic reinnervation for, 294


reversible vs. irreversible, 276, 283, 291, 293


Facial paralysis, grading scales for, 269–271, 280–282


electronic, 277


long-standing, smile reanimation for, 286–289


Facial plastic surgery, antibiotic use in, 347–356 . See also Antibiotics.


evidence-based medicine in, 265–274 . See also Evidence-based medicine (EBM).


Facial reanimation, 275–297


controversies in, 276–294


contemporary issues as, 276–279


dynamic smile as, 277, 283–294. See also Smile reanimation.


dynamic timing as, 276–277, 280, 282–283


patient evaluation as, 276–277, 280–282


dynamic, controversies with, 277, 280–294


key principles of, 276


static vs., 275–276


EBM for, outcome measures of, 269–272


free tissue transfer for, 242


introduction to, 275


key points of, 275


nerve transfers for, 276, 280, 282


overview of, 275–276


summary of, 291


Facial resurfacing, antibiotics use with, 352


in nasal reconstruction, 387–388


Facial symmetry/asymmetry, after parotid defect reconstruction, 235


after rhinoplasty, injectables for, 382, 384


Facial transplantation, 367–377


cost-effectiveness of, 376


ethical issues of, 374–376


immunology of, 369–374


acute rejection mechanisms in, 372–373


local skin-specific processes vs., 373–374


complications of, 374


immunosuppression regimen for, 372


higher dosage requirements, 374


lasting tolerance of, 372


outcomes of first partial, 373


sentinel flap and, 372–374


introduction to, 367


key points of, 367


male example of, 367–368


performed worldwide to date, 367, 370–371


resin mask in, 369, 372


summary of, 376


technical issues of, 367–369


vascular perspectives of, 367, 369


Facial trauma, epidemiology of, 299


in pediatric patient, septorhinoplasty for, 248, 331


management controversies of, 299–308 . See also Trauma/trauma patient.


Facial zones, in CTA, 369


Fascia lata extender graft, split, in temporalis tendon transfer, for smile reanimation, 287–288


Fat grafting, abdominal, in superficial parotidectomy, for parotid defect reconstruction, 236


Fat transfer. See Autologous fat transfer.


Fetal development, of nose, 245


Fibrosis, post-nasal reconstruction, corticosteroid injections for, 386


Fillers, fat as. See Autologous fat transfer.


injectable. See Injectable fillers.


other miscellaneous, 384–385


Flap length, as facelift controversy, 357, 360


Flap monitoring, in free flap surgery, postoperative controversies of, 313–314


Flap prophylaxis regimen, in free flap surgery, postoperative controversies of, 312


Flap surgery. See Free flap surgery.


Flaring sutures, for NVD, 226, 228


Fluid dynamics, computational, in NAO measurement, 320


Fluid management, in free flap surgery, intraoperative, 310


perioperative, 312


postoperative controversies of, 313


Fluid resuscitation, in free flap surgery, 313


Forehead flaps, paramedian, dermabrasion for, 388


for reconstruction of Mohs defects, 386


FP. See Facial palsy (FP).


Fractures, management controversies of, mandible, 302–305


orbital, 299–302


Free flap surgery, corticosteroid injections for, 386


postoperative management of, 309–314


anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in, 310–312


flap monitoring in, 313–314


flap prophylaxis regimen in, 312


fluids in, 313


intraoperative vs., 310


introduction to, 309–310


key points of, 309


vasopressors in, 313


Free muscle transfers, in smile reanimation. See also Gracilis muscle transfer.


donor nerve selection for, 289–294


procedure selection for, 286–289


regional muscle transfers vs., 287–289


Free tissue transfer, in parotid defect reconstruction, radical parotidectomy and, 242


total parotidectomy and, 239


Frey syndrome, parotid defect in, 235


Full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs), corticosteroids for, 386


dermabrasion for, 388


Functional septorhinoplasty, in pediatric patient, 250–252

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