Index




Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type.


A


Ablative fractional lasers, for scar revision, 644


Ablative lasers, for scar revision, 644


Adenoid glands, VPI and, 596, 598, 601, 607


Adhesive tape, surgical, for traumatic lacerations, 641


Adjunct procedures, age parameters for, with cleft palate repair, 581


with craniosynostoses, 538


Adolescence, nasal growth patterns in, 504–505


Age parameters, for repair, of cleft anomalies, 575, 578, 581


of craniofacial anomalies, 537–538


of otoplasty, 612, 625


Airflow during speech, nasal, in VPD/VPI assessment, 597, 607


Airway compromise, mandibular distraction for, 655, 658


outcomes of, 661–662


with craniosynostoses, as surgery indication, 529, 536–537


with oromandibular reconstruction, 556


with VPD, 596–597


obstructive sleep disorders associated with, 596, 602–603, 607


post-speech surgery, 607


Airway management, with cleft anomalies, 574–575, 581


intraoperative, 574–575, 578, 581


with craniomaxillofacial trauma, 568


with distraction procedures, 657–659


outcomes of, 661–662


Alar base, in cleft lip repair, 576–577


Allium cepa, for soft tissue trauma, 641–642


Alloplastic reconstruction, for microtia, current practice for, 631–636


complications of, 635–636


graft material for, 631


postprocedural care of, 635–636


procedural approach to, 632–635


surgical planning for, 631–632


historical perspectives of, 624


measuring outcomes of, 637


patient assessment for, 625


procedural approach to, 632–635


creating postauricular sulcus and removal of cartilage vestige, 633


final closure, 634


harvest and rotation of TPF flap, 633–634


local anesthesia in, 632–633


preparation and placement of implant, 633–634


preparation as, 632


raising TPF flap, 633


stage one, 632–634


stage two, 634–635


recent trends of, 636–637


Alveolar ridge, in cleft palate repair, 582


American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS), Cleft and Craniofacial Subcommittee of, 587–588, 590


American Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Association (ACPA), 587


Angiogenesis, infantile hemangiomas and, 509–510


Angle fractures, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 566–567


Angle’s class I occlusion, 564


Animals, septorhinoplasty studies on, 504


Ankle stability, post-bone graft harvesting, for oromandibular reconstruction, 553


Ankyloglossia, description of, 593–594


surgical correction of, frenotomy as, 594


frenuloplasty as, 594


Anomalies, auricular, 611–612. See also Otoplasty.


cleft, 573–586 . See also Cleft entries.


congenital, with cleft anomalies, 574


craniofacial, 523–548 . See also Craniofacial anomalies.


facial. See Facial anomalies; specific anatomy or anomaly.


velopharyngeal, 596. See also Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD).


Anotia, 624–625


Anthropometric measurements, for craniosynostoses, 525, 529


for septorhinoplasty, 504


Antihelix, in esthetic otoplasty, 613


creasing and puckering of, 620


irregular contouring of, 620–621


repositioning of, 615–616


supplementary maneuvers for, 616


Antitragus, in esthetic otoplasty, 613


in microtia reconstruction, 630


Apert syndrome, 526, 537


Approximation, of traumatic lacerations, 641


Arteries, in oromandibular reconstruction, 551–552


Articulation, in speech production, 593


muscles involved in, 595


Asymmetry. See Symmetry.


Aural atresia, with microtia, 624–625


Auricular cartilage, in esthetic otoplasty. See also specific anatomy.


necrosis of, 618–619


preoperative examination of, 613


reduction technique for, 617–618


ridges in, 620–621


supplementary maneuvers for, 616


Auricular deformities, esthetic surgery for, 611–612. See also Otoplasty.


reconstructive surgery for, 623–638 . See also Auricular reconstruction.


Auricular protrusion, from temporal bone, esthetic goal for, 613–614, 616


measurement of, 613


Auricular reconstruction, for microtia, alloplastic, 631–636. See also Alloplastic reconstruction.


autogenous, 626–631. See also Autologous cartilage reconstruction.


classification/grading schemes for, 624–625


controversies of, 626, 636–637


historical perspectives of, 624


key points of, 624–626


measuring outcomes of, 637


patient assessment of, 624–626


recent trends of, 636–637


stages of, family and patient toleration of, 625–626


summary overview of, 623–624, 637


Auriculocephalic angle, 613


in esthetic otoplasty, 614, 616


Autologous cartilage reconstruction, for microtia, controversies of, 626, 637


current practice of, 626–631


Brent technique of, 626–630


complications of, 631


Nagata technique of, 630–631


rib cartilage in, 626


surgical planning for, 626


historical perspectives of, 624


measuring outcomes of, 636–637


patient assessment for, 624–626


Axonal regeneration, aberrant, facial nerve rehabilitation for, 500




B


Baby fat, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 562


Bandeau modifications, in fronto-orbital advancement, for sagittal craniosynostosis, 539–542


Behavioral disturbances, associated with auricular deformities, 611–612


Birth weight, infantile hemangiomas risk and, 511


Bleeding, post-speech surgery, 606


Blowout fractures, inferior/zygomaticomaxillary fractures, 564


medial/nasal/nasoorbital ethmoid, 564, 566


Board certification, of multidisciplinary cleft team, 588


Bone(s), in craniomaxillofacial trauma, mandibular body fractures with, 567


softer, 561


in distraction osteogenesis, 653


nasal. See Nasal bone.


temporal. See Temporal bone.


Bone fixation plates, for oromandibular reconstruction, 550–553


Bone flaps, iliac crest, for oromandibular reconstruction, 554


in oromandibular reconstruction, 550, 552. See also Osteocutaneous free flaps.


Bone grafts, in oromandibular reconstruction, 553


Bone remodeling, in mandible development, 550


Bone resorption, in maxilla and mandible development, 550


Bone stock, in distraction osteogenesis, 654


Bone-anchored hearing aide (BAHA), 625


Botulinum toxin, as synkinesis treatment, in facial nerve rehabilitation, 500


in lip rehabilitation, 500


Brachycephaly, 525, 531–532


in syndromic craniosynostoses, 526–528, 533


Brain anatomy, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 561


Breast feeding, ankyloglossia symptoms during, 593


with cleft anomalies, 574


Brent classification, of microtia, 624–625


Brent reconstruction, for microtia, 626–630


first stage, 626–629


fourth stage, 630


overview of, 626


second stage, 628–629


third stage, 630


Broken nose, 562, 564, 566


Budget and finance, for multidisciplinary cleft team, 589


Burow triangle, in esthetic otoplasty, 617




B


Baby fat, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 562


Bandeau modifications, in fronto-orbital advancement, for sagittal craniosynostosis, 539–542


Behavioral disturbances, associated with auricular deformities, 611–612


Birth weight, infantile hemangiomas risk and, 511


Bleeding, post-speech surgery, 606


Blowout fractures, inferior/zygomaticomaxillary fractures, 564


medial/nasal/nasoorbital ethmoid, 564, 566


Board certification, of multidisciplinary cleft team, 588


Bone(s), in craniomaxillofacial trauma, mandibular body fractures with, 567


softer, 561


in distraction osteogenesis, 653


nasal. See Nasal bone.


temporal. See Temporal bone.


Bone fixation plates, for oromandibular reconstruction, 550–553


Bone flaps, iliac crest, for oromandibular reconstruction, 554


in oromandibular reconstruction, 550, 552. See also Osteocutaneous free flaps.


Bone grafts, in oromandibular reconstruction, 553


Bone remodeling, in mandible development, 550


Bone resorption, in maxilla and mandible development, 550


Bone stock, in distraction osteogenesis, 654


Bone-anchored hearing aide (BAHA), 625


Botulinum toxin, as synkinesis treatment, in facial nerve rehabilitation, 500


in lip rehabilitation, 500


Brachycephaly, 525, 531–532


in syndromic craniosynostoses, 526–528, 533


Brain anatomy, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 561


Breast feeding, ankyloglossia symptoms during, 593


with cleft anomalies, 574


Brent classification, of microtia, 624–625


Brent reconstruction, for microtia, 626–630


first stage, 626–629


fourth stage, 630


overview of, 626


second stage, 628–629


third stage, 630


Broken nose, 562, 564, 566


Budget and finance, for multidisciplinary cleft team, 589


Burow triangle, in esthetic otoplasty, 617




C


Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser, for scar revision, 643–644


Carpenter syndrome, 527


Cartilage, auricular. See Auricular cartilage.


in nasal growth patterns, 503–504


in septorhinoplasty, crushed grafts of, 506


resection of, 504


scaphal, reduction of, in esthetic otoplasty, 617–618


Cartilage grafts, crushed, in septorhinoplasty, 506


for microtia. See Autologous cartilage reconstruction; Rib cartilage reconstruction.


Cartilage vestige removal, in microtia reconstruction, 633


Cartilage-cutting surgery, for ear deformities, 612, 620


Cartilage-sparing surgery, for ear deformities, 611–612, 616


Cauliflower ear deformity, 618


Cell differentiation theory, of infantile hemangiomas, 510–511


Cephalic index (CI), in craniosynostoses, 525


Cephalograms, for distraction osteogenesis, pre-procedure, 654, 656–657


reported outcomes of, 662


Cephalometric analysis, for septorhinoplasty, 505


Cheek, infantile hemangioma of, 517, 519


Chemodenervation, in lip rehabilitation, 500


Chiari malformations, craniosynostoses and, 530, 534


Childhood, nasal growth patterns in, 503–504


Chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome, 596, 605, 607


Cleft alveolus, 574


Cleft anomalies. See also specific anomaly.


multidisciplinary team for, 587–591


board certification of, 588


budget and finance for, 589


guide for starting, 588–590


discussion on, 589–590


methodology in, 588


results of, 588–589


hospital selection and, 588


identification of clinical need and, 588


introduction to, 573–574, 587–588


key points of, 587


marketing strategies for, 589


recruitment of, 588–589


summary overview of, 590


surgical training of, 588


team format for, 588–589


septorhinoplasty for, clinical indications for, 505


guidelines for, 505–507


VPD associated with, 594


Cleft lip, 573–586


bilateral, repair of, 578–581


closure of, 579–580


complications with, 580–581


goals and principles of, 575


incisions and flap creation for, 579


patient positioning for, 578


postprocedural care for, 580


preoperative planning for, 578


preoperative preparation for, 578


primary rhinoplasty in, 580


procedural design and markings for, 578–579


surgical technique for, 578


timing of, 578


classification of, 574


genetics of, 573–574


incidence of, 573


key points of, 573


multidisciplinary care for, 573–574, 587–590


palate repair vs., 581–585


patient assessment for, 574


summary overview of, 573, 585


surgical assessment of, 574


unilateral, repair of, 574–578


closure of, 576–577


complications with, 577–578


goals and principles of, 575


incisions and flap creation for, 576


patient positioning for, 575


postprocedural care for, 577


preoperative planning for, 574–575


preoperative preparation for, 574–575


primary rhinoplasty in, 577


procedural design and markings for, 575–576


surgical technique for, 575


timing of, 575


Cleft palate, 573–586


classification of, 574


genetics of, 573–574


incidence of, 573


key points of, 573


multidisciplinary care for, 573–574, 587–590


patient assessment for, 574


repair of, 581–585


complications with, 584–585


Furlow palatoplasty technique for, 583–584


closure of, 584


incisions and flap creation for, 583–584


procedural design and markings for, 583


goals and principles of, 575


lip repair vs., 574–581


patient positioning for, 581


postprocedural care for, 584


preoperative planning, 581


preoperative preparation for, 581


timing of, 581


2-flap palatoplasty technique for, 581–583


advantages of, 581


closure of, 582–583


incisions and flap creation for, 582


procedural design and markings for, 582


VPI surgery and, 601


summary overview of, 573, 585


surgical assessment of, 574


VPD associated with, 594, 596


Clinical need identification, by multidisciplinary cleft team, 588


Cloverleaf skull, 525


in syndromic craniosynostoses, 526–528, 537


Cognitive impairment, with craniosynostoses, 526–527


as surgery indication, 537


Columella, in cleft lip repair, bilateral, lengthening of, 576–577


unilateral, 576–577


Compression ischemia, post-microtia reconstruction, 636


Computed tomography (CT) scan, of craniosynostoses, 529–531, 533


intraoperative, 539


of distraction osteogenesis, 654, 657–658


of microtia, 625


Computer-aided design and modeling (CAD-CAM), for distraction osteogenesis, 654


of craniosynostoses, 529–530, 533


overcorrection cautions with, 532, 534


Concha, in esthetic otoplasty, poles’ alignment with, 614, 616


setback of, 615


Concha wall, in esthetic otoplasty, 613


Conchal bowl, in esthetic otoplasty, 616


Conchal microtia, 624–625


Conchal-mastoid angle, 613


Conchal-scaphal angle, 613


Conductive hearing loss (CHL), with microtia, 625


Condyle, fractures of, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 562, 566–567


in normal maxilla and mandible relationship, 550


in oromandibular reconstruction, 550–551


Congenital anomalies. See Anomalies.


Conservative management, of craniomaxillofacial trauma, 570


of infantile hemangiomas, 512–514


combined therapies with, 518, 520


Corneal injury, with craniomaxillofacial trauma, 571


Coronal approach, for midface distraction, 656–657


nerve injury with, 660


Coronoid fractures, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 567


Correction loss, in esthetic otoplasty, 620


Corticosteroids, for infantile hemangiomas, 513, 515–516


Cranial to facial ratio, 560


Cranial vault, decompression of, age parameters for, 538


fronto-temporo-parietal defect following, 533


fractures of, 563


in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 559, 562–563


reconstruction of, fronto-orbital advancement as foundation of, 539–542


Cranial vault distraction, 657–658


indications for, 656–657


mortality with, 661


volumetric outcomes of, 662


Craniectomy, decompressive, fronto-temporo-parietal defect following, 533


for sagittal craniosynostosis, endoscopic-assisted strip, with wedge craniectomy, 538–539


simple strip, 538


Craniofacial anomalies, 523–548


brachycephaly as, 525, 531–532


cloverleaf skull as, 525


evaluation of, imaging for, 529–530, 533–534


physical examination in, 525, 529


pregnancy history in, 525


introductory overview of, 523–524


key points of, 523


microtia associated with, 625


midface distraction for, with syndromic craniosynostosis, 537


molecular genetics of, 524–528


mutations involved in syndromes, 524–528


pathophysiology of, 524


plagiocephaly as. See Plagiocephaly.


scaphocephaly as, 524, 529


surgical treatment of, anesthesia for, 534–535


blood loss during, 534


controversies in, 545


distraction osteogenesis in, 536


evidence-based medicine in, 543–545


for neurosurgical complications, 536–537


for posterior synostotic plagiocephaly, 542, 545


for sagittal synostosis, 538–542


for secondary deformities, 538, 542, 545


for syndromic craniosynostosis, 537


history of, 525, 532


indications for, 536–537


intraoperative preparation for, 534–535


open vs. minimally invasive approaches to, 536


patient positioning for, 534–535


planned outcomes for, 532, 534–535


preoperative preparation for, 532, 534


procedural approach to, 537–545


age range guidelines for, 537–538


timing of, 536–537


age parameters for, 537–538


trends and future horizons in, 545


treatment of, craniofacial team for, 530, 587–590


goals for, 532


trigonocephaly as, 524, 530


Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. See Distraction osteogenesis (DO).


Craniofacial growth and development, abnormal. See Craniofacial anomalies.


nasal patterns in, 503–505


normal, 523–524, 528, 550


Craniofacial microsomia, 625


Craniofacial surgery, age vs. procedure parameters for, 537–538


distraction in. See Distraction osteogenesis (DO).


for anomalies. See Craniofacial anomalies.


multidisciplinary team for. See Multidisciplinary team.


Craniofacial team, for craniofacial anomalies, 530, 550, 587–590


for oromandibular reconstruction, 550


Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma, 559–572


anatomy and, 560–564


brain, 561


comparative and developmental, 560


cranium, 563


facial, 563–564


mandible, 563


maxilla, 563


more soft tissue, 562


occlusion, 563–565


orbits, 561, 563


skull-face ratio, 560


small sinuses, 561


softer bone, 561


tooth buds, 561–562


brain injuries in, 561


complications of, 571


diagnosis of, 568


etiologies of, 559–560


fixation for, 569–571


plates in, absorbable, 570–571


removable, 570


reduction and, 569–570


screws in, absorbable, 570–571


wires in, 569–570


fractures as, 564–567


angle, 567


bony mandibular, 567


condylar, 566–567


coronoid, 567


dentoalveolar, 567


frontoorbital maxillary, 564–566


inferior blowout/zygomaticomaxillary, 564


LeFort I, II, and III, 564–566, 570


mandibular, 566–567


nasal/nasoorbital ethmoid/medial blowout, 564, 566


parasymphysis, 567


patterns of, 562


ramus, 567


subcondylar, 566–567


symphysis, 567


imaging of, 568


introduction to, 559–560


key points of, 559


long-term follow-up for, 571


nonoperative management of, 570


ocular injuries in, 561


physical examination for, 567


surgical approaches to, 568–569


airway management in, 568


coronal, 568–569


intraoral, 569


minimally invasive, 570


periorbital, 569


reduction and fixation in, 569–570


timing of, 568


transcervical, 569


Craniosynostoses, common forms with representative shapes, 528


diagnosis of, 525, 529


imaging for, 529–530, 533–534


effect on ICP, 529


growth and development in, 523–524


normocephaly compared to, 528


neurosurgical complications of, 536–537


overview of, 523


pathophysiology of, primary vs. secondary, 524


Whitaker classification of, 542, 545


proposed theories of, 523


sagittal, 531


in identical twin, 524


surgery for, 538–542


syndromic, midface distraction and, 656–657


molecular genetics of, 524–525


most common, 526–528


treatment of. See Craniofacial anomalies.


treatment team for, 530


Craniotomy, for DO device placement, complications associated with, 660–661


Cranium, hypoplasia of, distraction osteogenesis for, 656–657


in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 559, 562–563


retrusion of, distraction osteogenesis for, 656–657


Cross-face nerve grafting, in first stage smile rehabilitation, 493–496


in synkinesis treatment, with facial nerve rehabilitation, 500


Crouzon syndrome, 526


Cupid’s bow/peak, in cleft lip repair, bilateral, 578–579


unilateral, 575–576




D


Darwinian tubercle, in esthetic otoplasty, 613, 617


Deep closure technique, for scar revision, 646–647


Deformational plagiocephaly (DP), 524–525, 530, 532


Deformities. See Anomalies; specific anatomy or deformity.


Dehiscence, lip, post-cleft anomalies repair, 577–578


Dental anomalies, septorhinoplasty and, 505


Dental injury, following distraction procedures, 659, 661


with craniomaxillofacial trauma, 561–562, 567, 571


management of, 569–570


Dental rehabilitation, oromandibular reconstruction and, 556


Dentition, deciduous, anatomy of, 561–562


trauma to, 561–562, 567, 571


management of, 569–570


in oromandibular reconstruction, 550, 556


Dentoalveolar fractures, 562, 567


Depressor labii inferioris (DLI), paralysis of, lip rehabilitation for, 500


Dermabrasion, for scar revision, 644


Dermal flap. See Free tissue transfer.


Dermal layers, infantile hemangiomas description based on, 511


Dermal lesions, infantile hemangiomas classification of, 511–512


Deviated septum, septorhinoplasty for, clinical indications for, 505


guidelines for, 505–507


Device failure, following distraction procedures, 661


“Distraction failure,” 661


Distraction osteogenesis (DO), craniofacial, 653–664


approaches to, 656–657


complications of, 658–661


device failure as, 659, 661


hypertrophic scar as, 660


infection as, 660


mortality as, 661


nerve injury as, 660


neurovascular injury as, 659


relapse as, 658–659


suboptimal distraction vector as, 660–661


tooth injury as, 659


cranial vault, 657–658


indications for, 656–657


volumetric outcomes of, 662


description of, 653


follow-up care for, 658


for anomalies, 536


for LeFort advancement, 656–657


reported outcomes of, 662


in oromandibular reconstruction, 553, 556


key points of, 653


mandibular, 655–656


airway outcomes of, 661–662


midface, 656–657


reported outcomes of, 662


monobloc, 656–657


reported outcomes of, 662


osteotomies and device placement in, 656–657


outcomes of, 661–662


patient positioning for, 654


postoperative care for, 657–659


preoperative planning for, 654


preoperative preparation for, 654


selection of distractor, 654–656


cranial, 657–658


external vs. internal, 654–655


per facial zones, 655–656


summary overview of, 653, 663


surgical technique for, 654


underlying goal of, 653–654


upper face, 656


Distraction vector, craniofacial, devices and alteration of, 655


suboptimal, 660–661


Distractors, external, internal, and semi-internal, 654–655


failure of, 661


DO. See Distraction osteogenesis (DO).


Doppler stethoscope, for microtia reconstruction, 632


Dorsum. See Nasal dorsum.


Drains, surgical, in microtia reconstruction, 631, 634


Dressings, postoperative, for esthetic otoplasty, 616–618


for microtia reconstruction, 629, 635


Dynamic parameters, in zonal facial assessment, 488–489




E


Ear anatomy, in esthetic otoplasty, 612


Ear cup, plastic, for microtia reconstruction, 634


Ear deformities, microtia as, 623–638 . See also Microtia.


scope of esthetic, 611–612. See also Otoplasty.


Ear surgery, esthetic, 611–621 . See also Otoplasty.


reconstructive, 623–638 . See also Auricular reconstruction.


eFACE, for zonal facial assessment, 488–489


Electrocautery, in cleft palate repair, 582


Elevators, in cleft palate repair, 582


Endoscopic-assisted strip craniectomy with wedge craniectomy, for sagittal craniosynostosis, 538–539


Endothelial cell, proliferative neoplasms of, infantile hemangiomas related to, 509–510


corticosteroids effect on, 515


Environment factors, of craniofacial anomalies, 524


Epiphyseal growth center, in oromandibular reconstruction, 550, 553


proliferation of, in mandible development, 550


Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser, for scar revision, 643–644


Esthetic ear surgery, 611–621 . See also Otoplasty.


Ethmoid sinuses, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 563


Etomidate, for procedural sedation, 640


Excision, for scar revision. See Re-excision and closure.


skin. See Skin excision.


surgical. See Surgical excision.


Eye(s). See also Ocular entries.


in midface distraction, 656


Eyelid injury, with craniomaxillofacial trauma, 571


Eyelid procedures, lower, in ocular rehabilitation, 488–490


upper, for infantile hemangiomas, 517–518


Eyelid weights, for ocular rehabilitation, 488–490




F


Facial anatomy, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 563–564


Facial anomalies, septorhinoplasty for, clinical indications for, 505


guidelines for, 505–507


Facial assessment, preoperative nerve rehabilitation, zonal, 488–489


Facial esthetics, in esthetic otoplasty, 612–613


Facial fractures, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 562


Facial nerve, injury of, consequences of, 488


following distraction procedures, 660


microtia and, 625


Facial nerve rehabilitation, 487–502


historical perspective of, 487


introduction to, 487–488


key points of, 487


preoperative planning for, 488–489


preoperative preparation for, 488


summary overview of, 501


treatment goals for, 488


zonal facial assessment tool for, 488–489


zone-based procedural approaches to, 488–500


lip, 500


nasal, 490, 492


ocular, 488–491


smile, 492–500. See also Smile rehabilitation.


synkinesis treatment in, 500


Facial reanimation surgery, 487–502 . See also Facial nerve rehabilitation; specific anatomical procedure.


Facial scars. See Scar entries.


Family history, for esthetic otoplasty, 612


for microtia, 625


Fascia flaps, for microtia reconstruction, temporoparietal. See Temporoparietal fascia (TPF) flap.


turnover, 630


Fasting, for procedural sedation, 640


Fat pads, localized, in craniomaxillofacial trauma, 562


Feeding, with cleft anomalies, 574, 581, 584


FGFR1, 2 and 3, craniofacial anomalies associated with, 524, 526–527


Fibula free flap, in oromandibular reconstruction, 551, 553–554, 556


Finance and budget, for multidisciplinary cleft team, 589


Fistula, oronasal, post-cleft palate repair, 584–585


post-speech surgery, 606


Fixation, for craniomaxillofacial trauma, 569–571


plates in, absorbable, 570–571


removable, 570


reduction and, 569–570


screws in, absorbable, 570–571


wires in, 569–570


for oromandibular reconstruction, bone plates in, 550, 552


maxillomandibular, 569–570


Flaps, bone, in oromandibular reconstruction, 550–554, 556


fascia, for microtia reconstruction, temporoparietal. See Temporoparietal fascia (TPF) flap.


turnover, 630


free tissue. See Free tissue transfer.


in 2-flap palatoplasty, for cleft palate repair, 581–583


myomucosal, in cleft palate repair, 582–584


in VPI surgery, 600, 603–606


nasal mucosal, in cleft palate repair, 582–584


neophiltral, in cleft lip repair, 579


nonvascularized, in oromandibular reconstruction, 552–553, 556


osteocutaneous. See Osteocutaneous free flaps.


pedicle, for microtia reconstruction, 631, 635


pharyngeal, in VPI surgery, 598, 601–602, 604


rectus abdominis, for oromandibular reconstruction, 555–556


scalp, in microtia reconstruction, 630, 634


scapular system, for oromandibular reconstruction, 556


vascularized, in oromandibular reconstruction, 550–552, 556


Fluence, in laser therapy, 643


Focal lesions, infantile hemangiomas classification of, 511–512


Forehead, in midface distraction, 656–657


Fractional lasers, for scar revision, ablative, 644


nonablative, 644


Fractures, greenstick, 561–562


in craniomaxillofacial trauma, cranial vault, 559, 562–563


frontoorbital maxillary, 564–566


mandibular, 562, 566–567


midface, 562


nasal, 562


patterns of, 562


LeFort. See LeFort I, II, and III fractures.


Framework base, for microtia reconstruction, with alloplastic implant, 633–635


with rib cartilage, Brent technique, 628–629


Nagata technique, 630


Free muscle transfer, gracilis. See also Gracilis muscle transfer.


in second stage smile rehabilitation, 493–494, 496–498


Free tissue transfer, in cleft lip repair, bilateral, 579


unilateral, 576


in cleft palate repair, with 2-flap palatoplasty, 581–583


in esthetic otoplasty, 620


in oromandibular reconstruction, 549–557


craniofacial development and, 550


craniofacial team for, 550


dental rehabilitation and, 556


donor site development and morbidity in, 552–556


introduction to, 549–550


key points of, 549


microvascular, 550–552, 556


recipient considerations and outcomes in, 550–552


summary overview of, 556


in scar revision, 648–649


Frenotomy, for ankyloglossia, 594


Frenuloplasty, for ankyloglossia, 594


Frenulum, articulation role of, 593


Frontofacial distraction osteogenesis, mortality rates with, 661


Fronto-orbital advancement (FOA), age parameters for, 538


for sagittal craniosynostosis, 539–542


principle of, 539


Frontoorbital complex, in midface distraction, 656–657


reported outcomes of, 662


Frontoorbital maxillary fractures, 564–566


inferior blowout/zygomaticomaxillary fractures, 564


LeFort I, II, and III fractures, 564–566, 570


nasal/nasoorbital ethmoid/medial blowout, 564, 566


Fronto-temporo-parietal defect, post-decompressive craniectomy, 533


Furlow palatoplasty, in cleft palate repair, 583–584


closure of, 584


incisions and flap creation for, 583–584


procedural design and markings for, 583


in VPI surgery, 599–602


complications of, 606–607


description of, 603–605


Furnas sutures, in esthetic otoplasty, 612, 616

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Feb 8, 2017 | Posted by in General Surgery | Comments Off on Index
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